Third-party funded project

Energy Democracy and Energy Cooperatives. Theoretical Concepts and Empirical Examples in Europe

Research Department: Institutional Change and Regional Public Goods

Project Leader within IRS: Dr. Matthias Naumann

Project Team: Dr. Ludger Gailing Sören Becker

Funding Organization: Rosa-Luxemburg-Stiftung Gesellschaftsanalyse und politische Bildung e. V.

Duration: 11/2012 - 08/2013


Since the turn of the millennium, many EU countries have introduced fixed feed-in tariffs and this has led to a macrocosm of alternatives. Through a number of examples the project aimed to show how and where such a transition is already working. The project financed by the Rosa Luxemburg Foundation analysed democratic, ecological and social energy transition projects across the whole of Europe. It investigated their future possibilities and tried to establish a more concrete definition of the concept of ‘energy democracy’.

Cover: © RLS and ibidem



Kunze, C., & Becker, S. (2015). Wege der Energiedemokratie: Emanzipatorische Energiewenden in Europa. Stuttgart: Ibidem.
Weis, L., Becker, S., & Naumann, M. (2015). Energiedemokratie: Grundlage und Perspektive einer kritischen Energieforschung. ( Studien der Rosa-Luxemburg-Stiftung). Berlin: Rosa-Luxemburg-Stiftung.
Becker, S., Kunze, C., & Vancea, M. (2017). Community Energy and Social Entrepreneurship: Addressing Purpose, Organisation and Embeddedness of Renewable Energy Projects. Journal of Cleaner Production, (147), 25-36. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.01.048
Kunze, C., & Becker, S. (2015). Collective Ownership in Renewable Energy and Opportunities for Sustainable Degrowth. Sustainability Science, 10(3), 425-437. DOI: 10.1007/s11625-015-0301-0
Becker, S., & Naumann, M. (2017). Energy Democracy: Mapping the Debate on Energy Alternatives. Geography Compass, 11(8), 1-13. DOI: 10.1111/gec3.12321
Becker, S., Naumann, M., & Weis, L. (2015). Energiedemokratie. In S. Bauriedl (Ed.), Wörterbuch Klimadebatte (pp. 57-65). (Edition Kulturwissenschaft). Bielefeld: Transcript.
Kunze, C., & Becker, S. (2014). Energy Democracy in Europe: A Survey and Outlook. Brussels: Rosa-Luxemburg-Stiftung.
Kunze, C., & Becker, S. (2014). Energiedemokratie in Europa: Bestandsaufnahme und Ausblick. Brüssel: Rosa-Luxemburg-Stiftung.
Becker, S., & Kunze, C. (2014). Transcending Community Energy: Collective and Politically Motivated Projects in Renewable Energy (CPE) across Europe. People, Place and Policy, 8(3), 180-191. DOI: 10.3351/ppp.0008.0003.0004